Robert Mapplethorpe, Sepia Orchid


Deutsch: Why are flowers beautiful?

Friday, 14 September 2018, 18:30–21:00
LARC, 62 Fieldgate Street, London E1 1ES
Closest stations: Whitechapel / Aldgate East

Facilitated by John Fortnum
Suggested donation £2, booking via Eventbrite

Join us in September for a discussion of David Deutsch’s video lecture Why are flowers beautiful? Originally delivered at the Irish Museum of Modern Art in 2007.

My teacher set the same test ever year for the art exam: “please using the materials provided depict to the best your ability… a bee in a flower”. David Deutsch in his video lecture: Why are flowers beautiful? seeks to assuage my schoolboy doubts about this aesthetic misadventure and in doing so offers a provocation to current paradigms of cultural interpretation and transmission. Forgone is the radical relativism of contemporary post-modernity; the discourses of power, language and irony interrogated by crisis and ideology and in comes a strange and seemingly anachronistic supposition – ‘objective beauty’. Not the ancient hymn to body and soul of yesteryear, however but a trans-species encoding that shares a basic foundation with both ‘natural’ and ‘sexual’ selection and the sciences.

Albrecht Durer, Peonies
Albrecht Durer, Peonies

Deutsch posits; artists and scientists do the same things. The two cultures of progress persevere via a cycle of conjecture, error and correction, ultimately leading to greater knowledge and understanding and aren’t science and art both about information anyway? ‘The opposite of beauty is not actually ugly but rather boring’, Deutsch insists, ‘ugly is distinctive, only a matter of one reinterpretation away from beauty’. Oscar Wilde or Charles Baudelaire might indeed have to concur. But what separates a masterpiece from banality or kitsch? ‘You don’t have a choice in what is or isn’t an artistic improvement, any more than you have a choice as to what’s true or false in mathematics’, asserts Deutsch and running throughout Deutsch’s often bewildering and challenging assumptions about the nature of beauty is the theoretical distinction between ‘objective beauty’ as opposed to a temporary, cultural or psychologically derived beauty. This final calculation rests not with the beholder but with reality itself: outside all texts, beyond all individual consciousness and across species, flowers are beautiful because they have evolved with the participation of insects in the evolutionary process, they need to say things to survive as a species and we appreciate that evolutionary effort also; humans acknowledge ultimately ‘where the explanation is created’, outside our own temporary and mutable criteria. Beauty jumps minds, it bridges the gap between species and genetic histories, it’s simply a matter of agreement with the organic way of things and according to Deutsch, in the future there may be ‘unlimited aesthetic progress’ because of this ‘objective’ character to beauty – new senses producing new computations and new sensations ‘qualia’ for a post-human experience that we cannot predict accurately but know will happen.

Cicely Mary Barker, Poppy Fairy
Cicely Mary Barker, Poppy Fairy

In his lecture Deutsch is optimistically expansive about the possibilities offered by ‘objective beauty’ but also very clear that ‘objective beauty’ is not a cultural attribution of the past. Beauty is not self-expression (too subjective) or propaganda (too social) or skilful (too perfectible). Art’s proper destiny according to Deutsch is with open ended, engagement with experiment and originality (just like his own theoretical science perhaps?). But is this new characterisation of beauty just a simple reassertion of what every art teacher knows already; that students make both mistakes and manifest improvements over time, that assessment can be impartial and that nature offers the best models for the student to imitate, or is his thesis a radical recalibration of the enlightenment project, moving away from historical readings in which power and language are a central concern? Whatever our views on the politics of Deutsch’s unlimited aesthetic future, he seems to suggest, first prize at the cosmic flower show should always be awarded for computational intelligence and that aesthetic human culture is a significant and necessary component of the natural world.

Robert Mapplethorpe, Sepia Orchid
Robert Mapplethorpe, Sepia Orchid


1 Is Deutsch’s distinction between ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ beauty valid? Are there aesthetic properties (as in mathematics) immune to cultural and social change? What would be the consequence of such ‘universal criteria’ for the visual artist?

2 What is the relationship between ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ modes within the practice of visual art? How does the active position of making and the more passive role of interpreting work, change what we think about these psychological or philosophical concepts?

3 Does nature produce its own version of aesthetic discourse and communication? If so, what is the relationship between this interspecies culture of camouflage, flower, shell and human fabrication and creativity?

4 Is Deutsch’s thesis radical or conservative? Does his emphasis on reality reproduce the status quo or attempt to overturn contemporary common sense? Can we talk about ‘progress’ in art anyway?

5 What can we reasonably predict about the future of aesthetic development? Is it possible to conceive of beauty in a context other than human? Does the emerging knowledge of ‘zoomusicology’ and ‘biosemiotics’ have anything to say to traditional human art practices?

Takashi Murakami, Such cute flowers
Takashi Murakami, Such cute flowers

Suggested further reading and viewing

1 David Deutsch – The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations that Transform the World (Viking press 2011)

2 Paul Valéry – Sea Shells (Beacon press 1998) originally published 1937

3 Ernst Gombrich – Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation (Phaidon 1960)

4 Charles Darwin – On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859)

5 Memes 101 How Cultural Evolution Works, a video lecture on memes by American philosopher Daniel Dennett

Vincent van Gogh, Red Poppies
Vincent van Gogh, Red Poppies

Monthly reading group for artists, researchers and anyone interested in the intersections between art practice and critical theory. Everyone is welcome to propose a text and facilitate the reading group. Please book your place and download the shared document. For more information and an archive of previous events please scroll down.

Free & open access

The reading group is free and open to everyone who wants to join as long as they commit to the reading. Please register and arrive early, doors will close when we reach maximum capacity. Don’t forget to download the shared document and bring a hard-copy to the book club. Please consider donating to help cover our expenses and keep us going. Alternatively, you can donate via this link.

Discussion & decision-making

Texts are selected by group consensus on the basis that they reflect on the relationship between practice and theory. This includes a broad variety of texts, from philosophy to politics and aesthetics to science fiction – there is no limitation.

Facilitating the book club

[SYMPOSIUM] is a supportive community of peers who discuss and unpack their research interests. All participants have the opportunity to facilitate the book club on a text of their choice. If you would like to propose a text, you can start preparing right now:

[1] Decide on a text that you want to discuss.

[2] Do some background research and write a short introduction to provide some context, from your own perspective. When was it written? Why was it written? Who wrote it? Was it a response to something else? Why are you interested in the text? How does it relate to, or inform, your practice or your research?

[3] Pace the reading. How long is the text? If it is short, can we discuss the entire text in a 2-hour book club? If the text is long you may need to divide it up between two or more sessions.

[4] Write down some questions that you would like to bring to the discussion. Suggest some further reading and an image or two, with captions.

[5] Download the infosheet and send us your proposal.


#28 Mark Fisher: Capitalist Realism Pt. 2
Saturday, 9 June 2018, 2:30pm – 5:30pm
Facilitated by Sophia Kosmaoglou
Part of Antiuniversity Now 9-15 June 2018

#27 Derrida: Signature Event Context
Friday, 11 May 2018, 18:30–21:00
Facilitated by Nat Pimlott & Sophia Kosmaoglou

#26 Derrida: Structure, Sign and Play
Friday, 13 April 2018, 6:30pm–9pm
Facilitated by Sophia Kosmaoglou

#25 Mark Fisher: Capitalist Realism Pt. I
Friday, 9 March 2018, 6:30pm-9pm
Facilitated by Sophia Kosmaoglou

#24 Cohn: Representation and Critique
Friday, 9 February 2018, 6:30pm-9pm
Facilitated by Aris Nikolaidis

#23 Adam Curtis: HyperNormalisation
Friday, 12 January 2018, 6:30pm-9pm
Facilitated by
Neil Lamont

#22 Debord: Negation and Consumption
Friday, 8 December 2017, 6:30pm-9pm
Facilitated by Aristotelis Nikolaidis

#21 Adorno: Commitment
Friday, 10 November 2017
Facilitated by Nat Pimlott

#20 Foucault: Of Other Spaces
Sunday, 15 October 2017
Facilitated by Dasha Loyko

#19 Bishop: Pedagogical Projects
Monday, 24 July 2017
Chaired by Renata Minoldo
Part of School of The Damned‘s Common Room

#18 Virno: The Dismeasure of Art
Friday, 9 June 2017
Chaired by Rubén Salgado Perez

#17 Judd: Specific Objects
Friday, 21 April 2017
Chaired by Richard Burger

#16 Deleuze & Guattari: Rhizome
Friday, 10 March 2017
Chaired by Katie Tysoe and Sophia Kosmaoglou

#15 Marx: The Fetishism of the Commodity & its Secret
Friday, 10 February 2017
Chaired by Sophia Kosmaoglou

#14 O’Sullivan: The Aesthetics of Affect
Friday, 13 January 2017
Chaired by Katie Tysoe

#13 Foucault: The Four Similitudes
Friday, 9 December 2016
Chaired by Penelope Kupfer

#12 Foster: Post-Critical?
Friday, 11 November 2016
Chaired by Dasha Loyko

#11 Badiou: Art & Philosophy
Friday, 14 October 2016
Chaired by Kerry W. Purcell

#10 Sontag: Against Interpretation
Friday, 9 September 2016
Chaired by F. D.

#9 Groys: Under the Gaze of Theory
Friday, 8 July 2016
Chaired by Sophia Kosmaoglou, respondent Johanna Kwiat

#8 Rancière: Problems & Transformations of Critical Art
Friday, 10 June 2016
Chaired by Stephen Bennett
Part of Antiuniversity Now 9-12 June 2016

#7 Sewell: Tate Triennial III
Friday, 13 May 2016
Chaired by Richard Lloyd-Jones

#6 Duchamp: The Creative Act
Friday, 8 April 2016
Chaired by F. D., respondent Penelope Kupfer

#5 Latour: On Actor Network Theory
Friday, 11 March 2016
Chaired by Johanna Kwiat

#4 Barthes: The Death of the Author
Friday, 12 February 2016
Chaired by Henrietta Ross

#3 Owens: The Discourse of Others
Friday, 8 January 2016
Chaired by Sophia Kosmaoglou

#2 Abu-Lughod: Writing against Culture
Friday, 11 December 2015
Chaired by OmarJoseph Nasser-Khoury

#1 Kant: What is Enlightenment?
Friday, 13 November 2015
Chaired by Sophia Kosmaoglou